An illustration in the 1305-14
Jami‛ al-Tawarikh
by Rashid al-Din.

Universal History

or Compendium of Chronicles

Ğāmi‛ al-tavārīḫ. Rašīd al-Dīn Fazl-ullāh Hamadānī

Birth of the Prophet Muhammed

A larger image of the Birth of the Prophet Muhammed, Jami' al-Tawarikh, 1305-14

The illustrators of the Jami‛ al-Tawarikh often borrowed iconography from other traditions, such as Christian manuscripts, to create their images. For the birth of Muhammad, they adapted a Christian nativity scene. The three women on the left take the place of the three magi. The grandfather of the prophet Abd al-Muttalib on the right takes the place of Joseph. In other images, the compositions might be original, but stock figures would be used in them.

Il-Khanid: Tabriz, 1314
Edinburgh University Library, MS. Or. 20, fol. 42r

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