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Egypt
and its territories
10th to 19th centuries














Fatimid Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers
An Arab Cavalryman in a 10th Century Papyrus Drawing, Egyptian, Rainer Collection, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna.
. An Arab Cavalryman from Armies of the Dark Ages 600-1066 by Ian Heath, based on the 10th Century Papyrus Drawing
Fatimid-Zirid Bas-relief of Musician and Drinker
Fatimid-Zirid Plate with a Battle Scene
Musician on a Bowl, Fatimid Egypt, 10th Century
Fatimid Horseman from Ifriqiyah on a Plate, 10th to 12th Centuries
Fatimid Rider and Four Warriors on Coptic Textile, 11th Century
Fatimid Wood Carving of Hunters, 11th Century
Fatimid Carved Panel with Soldier, 11th Century
Fatimid Ceramic Wall-Plaque with Warriors from the Sabra Palace, 11th century
Fragment of a Fatimid Bowl Depicting a Mounted Warrior, 11th century
Plaque with a running man and his dog, Fatimid Egypt, 11th Century
Fatimid Lustre Painted Dish with Musician, 11th century
Bathhouse Fresco of a Man with Goblet, 11th Century
Fatimid Rectangular piece of wood with swordsmen
Fatimid wooden plank with carved lion hunt, 11th century
Fatimid wooden plank with carved dancer, 11th century
Fatimid wooden plank with musicians and revelers, 11th century
Fatimid wooden plank with musicians and dancers, 11th century
Fatimid wooden plank with mounted hunter with lance, 11th century
Hunter on an 11th century ivory drinking horn probably made in Muslim Sicily or Southern Italy
Coptic Priest on a Plate, 1050-1100
Shields on the Bab al-Nasr (Gate of Victory), Cairo, 1087
Frieze of Hunters over the door of the Church of San Bernadetto, Brindisi, late 11th Century
Fatimid Lustre Bowl Depicting a Lute Player, 11th-12th century
Fatimid Turban on Manuscript Fragment, 11th-12th Centuries
Morgan Casket, Southern Italy, 11th-12th century
Four ivory panels with hunters and revellers, 11th-12th century
Detail of carved ivory horn or 'oliphant' from Sicily
Figure with Goblet on Fatimid Bowl, 11th-12th century.
Ivory casket with Lion Hunt, Fatimid Sicily or Southern Italy, 11th-12th Centuries
Fatimid Manuscript with Two Soldiers, 11th-12th Centuries
Fatimid Carved Ivory Panel with Hunters, 11th-12th Centuries
Carved Ivory Plaque of Lion Hunt, Fatimid Egypt or Iraq, 11th-12th Century
Fatimid dancer on an ivory panel, 11th-12th century
Fatimid lute player on an ivory panel, 11th-12th century
Fatimid Infantryman on a Plate, 12th Century
Fatimid Warrior on Plate Fragment, 12th Century
Islamic Sicilian Ivory Casket with Horsemen, 12th Century
A Fatimid Nobleman or Officer on a lustre-ware plate, 12th Century
Fatimid plate with mounted hunter, 12th century
Fatimid bowl with female scarf dancer, 12th century
Sicilian ivory pyxis, 12th century
Fatimid wood panel with dancer, 12th century
Fatimid Manuscript Fragment, Fustat, 12th Century
Fatimid bowl with a hunter on horse
Fatimid bowl with a musician
Fatimid bowl with a drinker
Fatimid bowl with young courtier
Manuscript illumination with depiction of a court scene
Illustrations from a Coptic Gospel, Damietta, Egypt, 1179-80
Fatimid Manuscript with 'Jazrafil who rides an Elephant', c. 1200 AD
Camel Rider from the Cappella Palatina, Palermo, Sicily
'Book of Fixed Stars' (Kitāb suwar al-kawākib al-ṯābita) by ‛Abd al-Rahman ibn ‛Umar al-Ṣūfī.
Sudanese Infantry:
A Sudanese spearman in the painted windows in the monastery church of St Denis in Paris
. A Sudanese spearman from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the St Denis windows
. A Sudanese Archer from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath
Negroid warriors with mace in the capitals of Monreale Cathedral near Palermo in Sicily, 1174 to 1182 AD
Dailami Infantry:
Daylamī extracts from 'The military technology of classical Islam' by David Nicolle
Fatimids on Plate G, Men-At-Arms Series 125, The Armies of Islam 7th-11th Centuries by David Nicolle & Angus McBride
A summary of the written souces on Dailami soldiers
. A Daylami Tribesman from Armies of the Dark Ages 600-1066 by Ian Heath
. A painting of a Daylami Infantryman, early 11th century, by Angus McBride

Ayyubid Illustrations:
Horseman of Raqqa (Faris al-Raqqa), 12th century
Ayyubid Horse Archer on a Pilgrim Bottle (zamzamiyyah) Fragment, 12th-13th Century
Kitab al-Diryaq (the Book of Antidotes) by Pseudo-Gallen, 1198AD
An Arabic translation of the Materia Medica of Dioscorides, by ‛Abdullah ibn al-Fadl, 1224AD
A Syriac Gospel, c.1220 showing soldiers, British Library Ms. Add. 7170
. Syrian Cavalryman c.1220 in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the c.1220 Syriac Gospel
. Syrian Infantryman in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the c.1220 Syriac Gospel
Maqamat of al-Hariri, BnF Ms Arabe 6094, 1222-23AD
Ayyubid Horse-archer on a bowl, 1st half of the 13th century, Louvre
Maqamat of al-Hariri, St. Petersburg Ms C-23, c. 1225-35
Illustrations of Ayyubids on the Blacas Ewer, Mosul, 1232 AD
Maqamat of al-Hariri, BnF Ms Arabe 5847, 1237AD
Maqamat of al-Hariri, BnF Ms Arabe 3929, 2nd quarter of 13th century
Ayyubid Rider on Bowl, 13th Century
Ayyubid Hunters on a Canister, Victoria and Albert Museum, 1238-40.
Ayyubids on a Ewer, Jazirah, 1246-1247
Illuminations from a Coptic Gospel - Institut Catholique Ms. Copte-Arabe 1
Maqamat of al-Hariri, Suleymaniye Ms Esad Efendi 2916, 1242-1258
Ayyubid Soldier with two sticks on a bowl, Raqqa, Syria, 13th century, Christie's
Sgraffito-ware bowl showing a horseman in urban Arab costume, Syria?, 13th century, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg
The Fano Cup, Ayyubid Jazīrah or Syria, c. 1250 AD, BnF
Ayyubid cavalry with spear or crossbow, on a Glass Water-Flask, 1250-60, British Museum number: 1869,0120.3
. Saracen Crossbowman from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath based on the
Treaty between Acre and Kerak in Chronica Majora by Matthew Paris
. Ayyubid Heavy Cavalryman from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath based on the
Capture of the True Cross at Hattin in Chronica Majora by Matthew Paris
. Ayyubid Mamluk from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath based on
the 13th Century Kitab al-Diryaq
. Bedouin Tribesmen from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath based on
Hariri's Maqamat and on Raschid al-Din's Jami' al-Tawarikh
. Moslem Musicians from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath
. Saracen Heraldry from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath
. Saracen Standards from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath
Ayyubid Hunter on an Incense-burner or Hand-warmer, 3rd quarter of 13th Century

Mamluk Illustrations:
Mamkuk inlaid metal bowl, 13th century AD, Staatliche Museen, Berlin
. Mamluk c.1280 by Ian Heath based on the History of Outremer by William of Tyre.
. Mamluk Engineer with Midfa by Ian Heath based on:
The Book of Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices, by Hassan Al-Rammah, c. 1280.
. Mamluk in full armour c.1290 by Ian Heath
Mamluk Polo Rider Flask, c.1300AD
'Book of Fixed Stars' (Kitab suwar al-kawakib al-Tabita) by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Umar al-Sufi, c.1300AD
Mamluk cavalry on a pen box by Ahmad al Dhaki, Egypt or Syria, 1304
Tab from a Mamluk banner with linked crosses and pear-shaped medallion
. Mamluks from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath based on the
Mamluk metal basin called the Baptistere de Saint Louis early 14th century
. Mamluk Tabardar from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath based on the Baptistère de Saint Louis
Mamluk costume in Kalila and Dimna by Ibn al-Muqaffa', 1st Quarter of the 14th century
Frontispiece from a 14th century Mamluk Sulwan Al-Muta' of Ibn Zafar
A Mamluk sketch of a combat, first half of the 14th century
Maqamat of al-Hariri, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, manuscript AF 9, 1334AD
Maqamat of al-Hariri, Bodleian Ms Marsh 458, 1337
Nihayat al-sul, 1371 a Mameluke manual of horsemanship and military practice, British Library, Add. 18866, 1371AD
. A Mamluk, 1366, from Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the Nihayat al-sul, 1371
Helmet with the name of Mamluk Sultan Barsbay, 1422-38
. A drawing by Ian Heath in Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 of Mamluks in armour with the helmet based on that of Sultan Barsbay
Mamluk costume in Kalila and Dimna by Ibn al-Muqaffa', 15th century
Mail-shirt of Sultan Qaitbay. Egypt, 15th century
Kitsab al-makhzun jami' al-funun by ibn akhi hizam. A Mamluk manual of military practice and horsemanship, 1470
. Mamluk Heraldry from Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by Ian Heath
The Sultan (Viceroy) in Cairo in the manuscript of The pilgrimage of the Knight Arnold von Harff 1496 to 1499
A Mameluke in the manuscript of The pilgrimage of the Knight Arnold von Harff 1496 to 1499
A Mameluke Officer & servant in woodcuts of The pilgrimage of the Knight Arnold von Harff 1496 to 1499
. A Mamluk Servant in Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by Ian Heath, based on The pilgrimage of Arnold von Harff in 1496 to 1499
Costume and Arms of the Arabs in the manuscript of The pilgrimage of Arnold von Harff in 1496 to 1499
Costume and Arms of the Arabs in a woodcut of The pilgrimage of Arnold von Harff in 1496 to 1499
. A Bedouin_Tribesman in Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by Ian Heath, based on The pilgrimage of Arnold von Harff in 1496 to 1499
A Mamluk Training with a Lance from a furusiyya manuscript, David Collection Museum, Denmark, c. 1500
Sultans with Horns: The Political Significance of Headgear in the Mamluk Empire by Albrecht Fuess
'The reception of Ambassador Domenico Trevisiano at Damascus' painting by Gentille Bellini school, 1511
. Mamluk foot-soldier c. 1500 in Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by Ian Heath, based on the The Reception of Ambassador Domenico Trevisiano
Ottomans besieging revolting Mamluks in Damascus Selīm-nāma, c.1521-24
Three Mamelukes on horseback, in Constantinople, by Jan Swart van Groningen, 1526
Mamelukes from Códice De Trajes, 1547
Egyptian from Cairo from Hans Weigel's Habitus Praecipuorum Populorum ... das ist Trachtenbuch, Nuremburg, 1577
Kitab al-makhzun li arbab al-funun by al-tarabulusi. A manual of military practice and horsemanship, 1578-1579
. f25r Incendiary arms and incendiary bombs . f25v Combat . f26r Horse archery . f26v Archery . f27r Crossbows
A Mameluke from De gli habiti antichi, e moderni di diverse parti del mondo libri due by Cesare Vecellio, 1590
Mamalukes in George Gush's Persians and other easterners
Egyptian Youth from Sloan's Album, "The Habits of the Grand Signor's Court", c. 1620
Egyptian from Der Kern Turkischer Geschichte (The core of Turkish history), 1739
Egyptians of 1805 from Vorstellung der vorzuglichsten Gattungen des Türckischen Militairs und ihrer Officiere
Mameluke of Egypt after d'Alvimart in McLean's The Military Costume Of Turkey, 1813

Links to illustrations and articles about the Invasion of Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte
Mameluke in full armour, early 19th century, by Moritz Michael
Illustration of troop types of the Hicks Pasha Expedition to Sudan, 1883
Organizations and Uniforms of the Mahdist Armies, 1883-1898 by Doug Johnson, Illustrations by Greg Rose



Index of Illustrations of Costume and Soldiers

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