Tamara Talbot Rice
ANCIENT ARTS OF
CENTRAL ASIA

List of Illustrations

The author and publishers are grateful to the many official bodies, institutions and individuals mentioned below for their assistance in supplying original illustration material

1Gold bull: pierced for pole support to canopy. From Royal Tomb at Maikop, c. 2300 BC. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
2Two gold diadems: decorated with gold rosettes, probably mounted on felt or cloth. Royal Tomb, Maikop, c. 2300 BC. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
3Silver goblet: decorated with animals and a landscape. Royal Tomb, Maikop, c. 2300 BC. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
4Projection of the decoration of a silver goblet: animals and a landscape. Royal Tomb, Maikop, c. 2300 BC
5Cup: gold filigree work with mounted stones of agalmatolite and turquoise. Trialeti, 17th barrow. c. 1000-2000 BC. Photo: National State Museum of Georgia, Tiflis
6Silver cup (two views): processions of men and animals. Kurukh Tat near Trialeti, 5th barrow, c. 1000-2000 BC. Photo: National State Museum of Georgia, Tiflis
7Bronze belt with hunting scene. Trialeti, c. 1200 BC. Photo: National State Museum of Georgia, Tiflis
8Belt buckle: stylized stag and dog. Iron. Fifth century BC. Photo: Georgian National Museum, Tiflis
9Belt buckle: stylized horse. Bronze open-work, Scythian. Caucasus, c. fifth century BC. L. 5⅓″ (13.5). Photo: courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
10Belt buckle: horse. Iron. Fifth century BC. Photo: Georgian National Museum, Tiflis
11Horse’s breast-plate (?) gold repoussé and filigree. Akhalgorisk horde, fifth century BC. Photo: Georgian National Museum, Tiflis
12Gold head-dress terminals: Akhalgorisk horde, fifth century BC, H, 5⅛″ (13.0). Photo: Georgian National Museum, Tiflis
13Silver bowl: so-called Kazbek dish from Stepantsminda, sixth century BC. Photo: National State Museum, of Georgia, Tiflis
14Silver dish (detail): Papak, pitiarch of Ardashir. 220-241. Photo: Georgian National Museum, Tiflis
15Gold head of a stag from Tageloni, first century AD. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences, Republic of Georgia
16Iron terminal of man standing on the horns of a bull. Stepantsminda, mid-first millennium BC. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
17Dagger: inscribed with cuneiform. ‘Marduk-nadin-abe, King of Babylon’. Bronze. L, 16¼″ (32.3). Kermanshah, twelfth century. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
18Cheek-piece: human-headed, winged bull. Bronze. Luristan. Collection E. Graeffe, Brussels. Photo: ACC, Brussels
19Gold stag: probably centre-piece to a shield. Kostromskaya. seventh-sixth cen­tury BC. c. 12″ (30.5). Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
20Gold leopard: chased and decorated with amber and enamel inlay. Probably centre-piece to a shield. Kelermes, seventh-sixth century BC. L. c. 12″ (30.5). Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
21Felt saddle-cloth (detail): stag being attacked by an eagle. Pazyryk, Mound I, fifth century BC. c. 12″ x 7½″ (30.5 x 19)
22Aigrette (?): lion-gryphon couchant. Gold. embossed and chased, head alone being completely in the round. Oxus Treasure, Scythian, fifth-fourth century BC. L. 2½″ (6.5). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
23Wooden necklet: carved stags. Pazyryk, Mound 2, fifth century BC. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
24Carved stag: wood with leather antlers. Pazyryk, Mound 2, fifth century BC. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
25Wall-hanging (detail): human-headed composite creature. Felt appliqué. Pazyryk, Mound 5, fifth century BC. State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad Photo: J. E. Dayton
26Carpet (detail): border of elks and horsemen of Achenienian style. Wool 74½″ x 78¾″ (189 x 200). Persian, fourth- third century BC, Pazyryk, Mound 5. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
27B-shaped belt buckle: The Hunt. Gold, Sarmatian, first century BC-first century AD. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
28B-shaped belt buckle: man asleep beneath a tree with horses and two people. One of a pair. Gold. Sarmatian, first century BC-first century AD. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
29Belt buckle: wolf and serpent fighting. Gold, originally inlaid with stone and paste. Siberia, first-second century AD. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
30Wall-hanging (detail): the so-called Great Goddess being approached by a rider, Reconstruction. Felt appliqué. Pazyryk, Mound 5, fifth century BC. c. 10′x 6′ (3.05 x 1.83 m). Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
31Silver dish: warriors throwing down their arms. Kulagysh. Seventh-eighth century AD. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
32Plaque: two men fighting, and their horses. Bronze openwork. Ordos region, c. third century BC. H. 2½″ (6.5), L. 5″ (12.8). Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum, crown copyright
33Harness plaque: fighting horses. Gilt bronze openwork. Ordos region, c. first century BC. W. 4¾″ (12.0). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
34Plaque: fragment of a gilt bronze creature. Ordos region (?), fourth-first century BC. H. 2″ (5.0). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
35Horse trapping: stylized creature. Bronze. Ordos region, Han dynasty. Photo: Musée Cernuschi, Paris
36Bronze ritual vessel (ting): Li Yü, Shansi. Chinese, sixth century BC. H. 6″ (15.2). Photo: Musée Guimet, Paris
37Rug (detail): wild gryphon attacking an elk. Wool, embroidered. Noin Ula, Tomb 6, c. first century AD onwards. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
38Wall-hanging (detail): tigers. Wool, embroidered. Noin Ula, c. first century AD onwards. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
39Wall-hanging (detail): two horsemen. Embroidery. Noin Ula, 6th barrow, c. first century AD onwards. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
40Wall-hanging (detail): head of a Hun. Embroidery. Noin Ula, 25th barrow, c. first century AD onwards. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
41Death-mask: painted clay. Tadjik. Second century BC. Photo: John Webb
42Sword sheath (detail): scenes from a royal hunt - Median workmanship. Oxus Treasure, seventh-sixth century BC. Gold. L. 10⅞″ (27.5). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
43Bronze gates (detail): Assyrian army of Shalmaneser III defeating Urartians in 859 BC. Balawat, ninth century BC. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
44Relief (detail): Assyrian melting down Urartian statues. Room XIII, Nineveh, seventh century BC. After a drawing by Flandin from E. Botta, Monuments de Nineve, Vol. II.
45Bronze plaque: Urartian building. Toprak Kale, eighth-seventh century BC. H. 11⅞″ (30.0). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
46Bronze model of a tower. Urartian, eighth-seventh century BC. Toprak Kale. H. 6⅝″ (16.8). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
47Ornament: man standing on a bull. Probably part of a throne, now broken up. Bronze, engraved. Urartian, eighth-seventh century BC. Toprak Kale. H. 8½″ (21.5). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
48Ornament: human-headed, winged bull. Probably part of a throne, now broken up. Bronze, originally with inlaid stone face. Urartian, eighth-seventh century BC. Toprak Kale. H. 8¾″ (22.2). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
49Ornament: lion terminal from a throne, now broken up. Part of a throne, now broken up. Urartian, eighth-seventh century BC. Toprak Kale. H. 8½″ (21.5). overall L. 11½″ (29.3). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
50Bronze quiver: embossed with horsemen and chariots, Belonging to Sardur II. Urartian, c. seventh century BC. Karmir Blur. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
51Bronze helmet: embossed with horsemen and chariots. Belonging to Argysht I. Urartian, seventh century BC. Karmir Blur. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
52Bronze helmet (detail): horsemen and chariots. Belonging to Argysht I. Urartian, seventh-sixth century BC. Karmir Blur. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
53Statuette: soldier. Bronze. H. 3¾″ (9.5). Urartian, eighth-seventh century BC. Photo: Musée du Louvre
54Gold bowl: decorated with religious scenes. Hasanlu, Persia. Ninth-eighth century BC. H. 8½″ (21.5). W. 11″ (28.0). Archaeological Museum, Teheran. Photo: Josephine Powell
55Gold bowl (detail): goddess holding a mirror seated on a lion. Hasanlu, Persia, ninth-eighth century BC. H, 8½″ (21.5), W. 11″ (28.0). Archaeological Museum, Teheran. Photo: Josephine Powell
56Spouted vessel: mythical figure with winged human body and two animal’s heads, holding two sphinxes. Above, lion attacking a deer. Silver, inlaid with gold. Marlyk, late second-early first millennium, Diam 7½″ (18.0). Archaeological Museum, Teheran. Photo: Dr E. O. Negahban
57Gold vessel: winged bulls with heads in high relief between, trees of life. Marlyk, c. ninth century BC, H. 7½″ (19.0). Archaeological Museum, Teheran. Photo: Dr E. O. Negahban
58Zoomorphic ritual vessel in the form of a bear. Pottery. H. 11″ (28.0). Marlyk. c. ninth century BC. Archaeological Museum, Teheran. Photo: Dr E. O. Negahban
59Silver vessel: warrior struggling with leopards. Engraved. Marlyk. c. ninth century BC. H. 5½″ (14.0). Archaeological Museum, Teheran. Photo: Dr E. O. Negahban
60Gold vase: double register of long-legged unicorns with scattered rosettes. Marlyk, ninth century BC. H. 7½″ (18.0). Archaeological Museum, Teheran. Photo: Dr E. O. Negahban
61Cauldron handle: gryphon. Gold. L. 3⅛″ (8.0), W. 2⅛″ (5.3). Ziwiye, seventh century BC. Archaeological Museum, Teheran. Photo: Josephine Powell
62Gold pectoral: two registers of processions of winged creatures, and, at each end, a Scythian feline and bare. Ziwiye, seventh century BC. L. 13″ (33.0), W. 5¼″ (13.4), Archaeological Museum, Teheran. Photo: Josephine Powell
63Gold plaque: stags, ibexes and lions’ masks. Comprises twenty-three frag­ments. Ziwiye, late seventh century BC. 11¾″ (30.0), W. 6¼″ (16.0). Archaeological Museum, Teheran. Photo: Jose­phine Powell
64Dagger pommel in the form of a curled animal of Scythian type. Gold. H. ⅞″ (2.3), W. 1⅝″ (4.0). Ziwiye. c. 600 BC. Ernest Erickson Foundation, Inc. Photo: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
65Horses head: green jade. Chinese, Han dynasty (206 BC-AD 220). H. 7⅝″ (19.3). Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum, crown copyright
66Horse: grey unglazed pottery with traces of unfired paint. Chinese, Six Dynasties (220-589). H. 24″ (61.0). Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum, crown copyright
67Tomb relief: battle on a bridge showing native Chinese ponies. Rubbing from a tomb in North China. Han dynasty. After E. Charrunes. Mission archéologique dans le chine septentrionale, Paris, 1909
68Ivory rhyton: horned creature, with friezes of mythological characters. Old Nisa, Royal Treasury, second century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
69Ivory rhyton (detail): mythological characters. Old Nisa, Royal Treasury, second century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
70Statue: King Shapur I. Stone (in situ) 26′ (7.90 m). Bishapur (Mudan Cave), second half of the third century. Photo: Thames and Hudson Archives
71Statue: Parthian prince. Bronze. Temple of Shami, Persia, 6′ 3″ (1.90 m). Parthian, second century. Archaeological Museum, Teheran. Photo: Thames and Hudson Archives
72Bowl: Triumph of Dionysus with Ariadne and Heracles in relief. Silver. Diam. 9″ (22.6). Parthian, c. 200. Oxus Treasure. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
73Relief: Parthian rider. Terracotta. H. 5⅞″ (14.8). Musée du Louvre. Photo: Archives Photographiques
74Wall-painting (detail): horsemen hunting onagers. Parthian, second century. Dura Europos. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Photo: Thames and Hudson Archives
75Bowl: Shapur II hunting. Chased silver with traces of gilding. Diam. 9″ (22.6). Sassanian, fourth century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
76Ossuary (fragment): figures beneath arches, showing Zoroastrian deities. Terracotta. Bia Naiman. Soghdian, fifth-seventh century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
77Ossuary (reconstruction): figures of Zoroastrian deities beneath arches. Terracotta. Bia Naiman. Soghdian, fifth-seventh century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad. After Borissov, 1940
78Shield (fragment): horseman. Wood covered with leather. Mug Castle. Soghdian, eighth century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
79Stucco (fragment): carved decoration from a frieze. Soghdian, eighth century. Varaksha. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
80Wall-painting (detail): drawing of a gryphon from Hall of Gryphons, Varaksha. Sogdhian, fifth-seventh century. State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad After Shyshkin, Varaksha
81,82 Wall-painting: men mounted on elephants fighting lions and leopards. From western wall of central hall of palace, Varaksha. Soghdian, fifth-seventh century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
83Wall-painting (detail): Tocharist painter. Second temple building, Kizil. Photo: Staatliche Museen, Berlin
84Statue: ‘Balbal’ in stone, 6′ (1.80 m). Photo: Historical Museum, Moscow
85Wooden statuette of a woman. Piandjikent, seventh century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
86Wall-painting (reconstruction): the death of Syavush. Piandjikent, building XI, south wall, seventh-eighth century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
87Wall-painting (reconstruction): ritual scene, probably depicting the Nu Ruz sacrifice, with traces of Soghdian inscription. Piandjikent, building X, north wall, seventh-eighth century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
88Wall-painting: men playing chess. Piandjikent, seventh century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
89Wall-painting: Rustam slaying the Dragon. Piandjikent, Room 41, seventh century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
90Wall-painting (reconstruction): horsemen. Piandjikent, seventh century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
91Wall-painting (reconstruction): Dehkans sitting at a feast, Piandjikent, seventh century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
92Wall-painting (reconstruction): harpist with a halo. Piandjikent, seventh century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
93Textile (reconstruction) ducks in roundels. Figured silk banner, blue and green on natural ground. Soghdian (Bokhara), early eighth century. Chien fo-Tung. Original in the British Museum. After Sir M. A. Stein. Serindia. Photo: Courtesy Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations
94Textile (reconstruction): elks in roundels. Figured silk banner, pink and green. Soghdian (Bokhara). early eighth century. Chien fo-Tung. Original in the British Museum. After Sir M. A. Stein. Serindia. Photo: Courtesy Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations
95Textile (reconstruction): figured silk. Soghdian, first century AD. Moshchevja Balka (Kuban). Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
96Wall-painting: woman holding gold cups. Soghdian, fifth-sixth century. Balalyk Tepe. Photo: John Webb
97Textile: boar’s head in roundel. Figured silk. Sassanian. sixth-seventh century. Astana. Photo: National Museum, New Delhi
98Wall-painting (fragment): pigeon holding a necklace, Soghdian. fifth-seventh century. Gryphon Hall, Varakaha. After Shyshkin, Varaksha
99Textile: bird-dog (senmerv). Said to have been found in the reliquary of the head of St Helena. Originally ornaments of a costume from a burial ground in Egypt. Figured silk. Sassanian, sixth-seventh century. Victoria and Albert Museum, Photo: John Webb
100Ewer decorated with ladies beneath arches. Gold. H, 6¼″ (16.5). Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
101Dish: hunting scene. Silver. Soghdian, not earlier than seventh century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
102,103 Wall-paintings (fragments): human and tiger heads. Palace, Toprak Kala, third-fourth century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
104Sculpture: Alabaster head. Toprak Lila, third century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
105Statue: fragment of a woman. Un­baked, painted day. Over life-size. Palace, Toprak Kala, third century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
106Frieze: rosettes and palmettos. Stucco. Teshik Kala. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
107Statuette: river goddess (yakshi). Ivory, part of a piece of furniture. Begram, date uncertain, probably first-fourth century. Kabul Museum. Photo: Josephine Powell
108Ivory: two water goddesses. Fragment of furniture. Begram, date uncertain, probably first-fourth century. Kabul Museum. Photo: Josephine Powell
109Ivory: water goddesses. Fragment of furniture. Begram, date uncertain, probably first-fourth century. Kabul Museum. Photo: Josephine Powell
110Glass bottle: probably imported from Syria. Begram, first-fourth century. Kabul Museum. Photo: Josephine Powell
111Frieze: busts of youths and girls - musicians and garland-bearers. Stone. Possibly from a Buddhist temple. Airtam. First century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
112Frieze (detail): bust of a musician. Stone. Possibly from a Buddhist temple. Airtam. First century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
113Coin: Eucratedes and (reverse) two horses. Silver tetradrachma, c. 180-150 BC. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
114Coin: Demetrius helmetted. Silver tetradrachma of Demetrius. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
115Coin: Euthydemus in old age. Silver tetradrachma wearing a laurel wreath, c. 230. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
116Coin: Eucratedes. Gold stater. Bactrian, 170-165 BC. Photo: Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris
117Silver gilt bowl: hunting scenes. North-west India, fifth-sixth century. L. 6½″ (16.0). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
118Silver bowl: scenes from Tragedies of Euripides (Alcestis, Alope. Bacchae and Ion). Kustanai, first-second century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
119Silver bowl: two scenes from Syleus. Heracles, slave of Syleus, and Heracles slaying his master after a feast. Seventh century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
120Silver phalera: goddess with a bow. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
121Silver disc: elephant and riders. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
122Mirror: with graeco-bactrian designs. Bronze. Diam. 9⅛″ (32.3). Han dynasty (c. 200 BC-AD 220). Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum, crown copyright
123Gold armlet: with gryphon terminals, and originally inlaid with coloured stones. One of a pair, the other is in the British Museum. Oxus Treasure. Persian, fifth century BC. H. 5″ (123), diam. 4½″ (11.5). Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum, crown copyright
124Gold ring: embossed in the form of a lion (?). Originally set with coloured stones and turquoises. Oxus Treasure. Scythian, fifth-fourth century BC. Diam. 1½″ (3.6). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
125Bronze lion-gryphon: cast and chased. Said to have been found near Helmund river. Bactrian, fourth century BC. H. 10” (24.9). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
126Pendant: figure of Hariti. Gold repoussé with pearls and garnets. Taxila area, third-fourth century. Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum, crown copyright
127Pendant: gold-encrusted with jewels. Taxila. Kushan period. c. 100 BC-AD 100. Photo: National Museum, Karachi
128Bowl: a yaksha, perhaps Kuvera, drinking. Silver embossed and chased. Kushan, third-fourth century. Buddhaghana. north-west India. Diam. 10” (25.0). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
129Reliquary: figures beneath arches. Gold, inlaid with rubies. Buddhist stupa at Bimaran. Kushan. first century. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
130Statue: King Kanishka, inscribed ‘The king, king of kings, His Majesty Kanishka’. Pink sandstone, originally enhanced with metal plaques. H. c. 5′ 7″ (1.70). Kushan, second century. Photo: Archaeological Museum, Mathura
131Coin: Bull of Siva. Gandharan. Spalapati Dera, early tenth century. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
132Coin: King Kanishka and (reverse) the goddess Ardoksha holding a cornucopia. Gold. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
133Relief: Hariti and Pancika. Grey schist or limestone. Takht-i-Bahr. North-west India. Gandhara. third-fourth century. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
134Head of a Bodhisattva. Pink sandstone. Kushan style. Mathura, second century. H. 4″ (10.2). Victoria and Albert Museum. Photo: John Webb
135Relief: tree spirit (yakshi). Pink sand­stone. H. 20½″ (33.0). Jain stupa at Mathura. Kushan, second century. Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum. crown copyright
136Head of Buddha. Red sandstone. Kushan, c. first century. Mathura. H. 1′ 10½″ (57.0). Photo: Archaeological Museum, Mathura
137Head of Buddha Lime composition with traces of red paint on the lips. Gandhara. Romano-Buddhist style, fourth-fifth century. Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum, crown copyright
138Head of Buddha. Grey schist. Gandhara. second-third century. H. 1′ 4″ (40.5). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
139Statue of a seated Buddha (Dharmacka mudra). Gandhara, second-third century. c. 3′ (94.5). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
140Statue of a Bodhisattva. Stone. H. 3′ 7″ (1.09 m). Gandhara, second century. Photo: Courtesy Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
141Model stupa. Gandhara. Valley of Swat. Photo: Museum of Indian Art. Calcutta
142Relief: Prince Siddartha (later Buddha) driving to school in a chariot drawn by two rams. Beside walk his companions holding inkpots and writing boards. Schist. Gandhara, Romano-Buddhist. second-fourth century. Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum, crown copyright
143Relief: death of Buddha. Gandhara, Romano-Buddhist style, second-third century. Takht-i-Bahr, north-west India, Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
144Relief: Prince Siddartha in his harem. Stone. Gandhara, second-third century. Takht-i-Bahr, north-west India. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
145Statue: goddess with flowers. Limestone. H. 1′ 7″ (48.0). Hadda, third-fourth century. Photo: Musée Guimet, Paris
146Statue head of monk, Lime composition. H. c. 4″ (10.0). Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum, crown copyright
147Statue: head of a warrior. Lime composition. Romano-Buddhist style, fourth-fifth century. Hadda. H. c. 4″ (10.0). Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum, crown copyright
148Statue: head of a demon (yaksha). Stone. Romano-Buddhist style. Hadda, fourth-fifth century. Kabul Museum. Photo: Josephine Powell
149Colossal statue of Buddha. Rock-hewn, folds modelled on rope covered with plaster. West of Bamyan. H. 175′ (53.4 m). Fourth-fifth century. Photo: Thames and Hudson Archives
150Wall-painting: Mandorla with Buddha preaching, surrounded by small Buddha figures. From a dome, Bamyan. fifth-sixth century. Diam. c. 34″ (86.5). Kabul Museum. Photo: Josephine Powell
151Wall-painting: the hunter king. From drum of a dome, Kakrak, Fifth-sixth century. L. 4′ 3½″ (1.3 m). Photo: Josephine Powell
152Wall-painting: Bodhisattva surrounded by figures. Bamyan, group K, cave 3. Fifth-sixth century. Photo: Thames and Hudson Archives
153Relief (detail): The hunt. Stone. Sassanian, fifth-sixth century. Taq-i-Bustan, Persia. Author’s photo
154Wall-painting: Buddha in meditation. Balawaste, mid-sixth century. H. c. 1′ 7½″ (49.5). National Museum, New Delhi. Photo: Josephine Powell
155Wall-painting (detail): pigeons with necklaces. Bamyan. Photo: Josephine Powell
156Wall-painting (detail): tusked boat. Bamyan. Photo: Josephine Powell
157Sarcophagus cover: princely couple. Painted terracotta. Fundukistan, Niche E, sixth-seventh century. Kabul Museum. Photo: Thames and Hudson Archives
158Wooden plaque: Blue Lotus Maitreya. Fundukistan Niche F, seventh century. W. 9½″ (24.0). Kabul Museum. Photo: Josephine Powell
159Ewer: horseman hunting with bow and arrow, the so-called ‘Parthian shot’. Pottery, glazed with yellow and blue. H. 12½″ (31.8). Chinese, T’ang dynasty (618-906). Photo: Ashmolean Museum, Oxford
160Ewer: bird-dog (senmerv). Silver. Sassanian, or post-Sassanian. After Y. I. Smirnov, Oriental Silverware
161Amphora: handles are two stylized dragons. White pottery with brown glaze. Chinese, T'ang dynasty (618-906). H. 12¾″ (32.0). Collection Mr Samuel Lee, Tokyo. Photo, Thames and Hudson Archives
162Seals: impressions from documents. Left, Chinese, right, Graeco-Romano figure. Niya. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
163Wooden chair: Niya, third century. H. 23″ (60.5). W. 26″ (61.5). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
164Pilgrim flask: The Nativity. Red painted pottery. Eastern Mediterranean, fourth-sixth century. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
165Pilgrim flask: lute player and dancer among foliage. Stoneware, glazed brown, over white slip. Chinese, T’ang dynasty (618-906). H, 8⅝″’ (22.0), W. 7½″ (19.0). Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum, crown copyright
166Statuette: figure of a dancer, probably a Chorasmian, Olive-green glaze. Chinese, T’ang dynasty (618-906). H. 8½″ (19.0). Photo: Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto
167Statuette: figure of a youth with Graeco-Romano features. Unglazed grey pottery with traces of colour. Chinese, T’ang dynasty (618-906). H. 5⅛″ (13.0). Photo: Victoria and Albert Museum, crown copyright
168Statuette: woman polo-player. Un­glazed pottery with traces of colour. Chinese, T'ang dynasty (618-906). H. c. 11¾″ (30.0). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
169Textile: ponies. Printed silk, blue and yellow. Chinese, ninth-tenth century, Chien fo-Tung. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
170Textile: repeat pattern of animals and Chinese characters. Polychrome silk. Later Han dynasty. Photo: National Museum, New Delhi
171Statuette: a warrior. Carved stucco. H. 12″ (30.5). Mingoi, near Sorçuk, eighth-tenth century. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
172Statuette: fragment of a horse. Carved stucco. Mingoi, near Sorçuk. eighth-tenth century. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
173Statuette: head of a camel. Carved stucco. L. c. 12″ (30.5). Mingoi, near Sorçuk, eighth-tenth century. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
174Head of a laughing man. Carved stucco. Mingoi. near Sorçuk, eighth-tenth century. H. c. 2″ (5.0). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
175Wall-painting: swimmers, Cave of the Navigator, Kizil, c. 500. W. 13½″ (30.9). Staatliche Museen, Berlin. Photo: Karl H. Paulmann
176Wall-painting: goddess and celestial musician. Cave of the Painted Floor, Kizil. c. 600-650. W. 4′ 5″. Staatliche Museen, Berlin. Photo: Karl H. Paulmann
177Wall-painting: female donors. Sorçuk, Cave VII, eighth-ninth century. H. 8¾″ (22.0). Photo: Staatliche Museen, Berlin
178Wall-painting worshipping Bodhisattva. Kumtura, eighth-ninth century. H. 23⅞″ (60.0). Photo: Staatliche Museen, Berlin
179Wall-painting: donors. Cave of the Sixteen Sword-bearers, Kizil, c. 600-650, H. 5′ 3″ (1.6m). Staatliche Museen, Berlin. Photo: Karl H. Paulmann
180Wall-painting: dance of Queen Candraprabha. Treasure Cave, Kizil, c. 500. H. 5′ 3″ (1.6 m). Staatliche Museen, Berlin. Photo: Karl H- Paulmann
181Wall-painting: head of a young ascetic. Cave of the Navigator, Kizil, c. 500. W. 13¾″ (30.9). Photo: Staatliche Museen, Berlin
182Wall-painting: head of Ascetic Mahakasyapa. Large cave, Kizil, 600-650. H. 15¾″ (40.0). Staatliche Museen, Berlin. Photo: Karl H. Paulmann
183Scroll: Buddha addressing Subhuti, from the Diamond Sutra. Chinese, 868. Tun-huang. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
184Wall-painting: Buddha beneath a canopy. Koço, seventh-eighth century. H. c. 8″ (20.5). Photo: Staatliche Museen, Berlin
185Wall-painting: the future Buddha renouncing the world. Koço, ninth century. H. 10¾″ (27.4). Photo: Staatliche Museen, Berlin
186Wall-painting: portrait of Mani (?). Manichean. Koço, Ruin K, early ninth century. 5′ 6″ x 2′ 10″ (1.65 x 0.96 m). Photo: Staatliche Museen, Berlin
187Wall-painting: Uygur prince. Bezeklik, Temple 19. eighth-ninth century. W. 8⅜″ (12.4). Photo: Staatliche Museen, Berlin
188Wall-painting; Uygur princesses. Bezeklik, ninth century. H. 21¼″ (53.9). Photo: Staatliche Museen, Berlin
189Silk: Uygur prince. Koço, ninth century (?). W. c. 14″ (31.0). Photo: Staatliche Museen, Berlin
190Miniature: a Turcoman prisoner. Kazvin school, c. 1575 (MS. Ouseley Add. 173, fol. 1 r.). Photo: Bodleian Library, Oxford
191Portrait of Chengis Khan. National Central Museum, Tainan (Formosa). Photo: Thames and Hudson Archives
192Wall-painting: dragon leaping Out of the water. Bezeklik, Temple 19, ninth-tenth century. H. 25″ (32.0). Photo: Staatliche Museen, Berlin
193Wall-painting: musicians. Bezeklik, eighth century. Private collection, Tokyo
194Wall-painting: Palm Sunday (?). Nestorian, Koço, temple at Eastern Gate, late ninth century, 23½″x 25″ (30.5 x 32.0). Photo: Staatliche Museen, Berlin
195Wall-painting: worshipper, Nestorian. Koço, temple at Eastern Gate, late ninth century. 17⅛″ x 8¼″ (33.0 x 12.0). Photo: Staatliche Museen, Berlin
196Wooden plaque: two youths riding. Dandan-Uilik, Sanctuary D. VII, c. seventh century. 13⅛″ x 7″ (33.5 x 17.8). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
197Wooden plaque: four-armed, three-faced deity seated cross-legged on a cushion supported by two couchant bulls (recalling Brahmanic Siva Avolokitesvara). Painted on both sides. Dandan-Uilik, ruined dwelling, c. seventh century. c. 12¾″ x 8″ (32.5 x 25.4), Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
198Banner: the Bodhisattva Namasangiti. Western Tibet, sixteenth century. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
199Sculpture: Maitreya. Bronze. Tibet, fifteenth century. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
200Wooden plaque: three seated Bodhisattvas. Painted on both sides. Dandan-Uilik, c. eighth century. Sanctuary, D.X.3. Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
201Wooden plaque: ‘The Silk Princess’. Dandan-Uilik, Sanctuary D.X., c. seventh century. 7½″ x 4⅝″ (19.0 x 11.5). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
202Wall-painting: youths with garlands. Miran, Shrine V, late third century. Photo: National Museum, New Delhi
203Wall-painting: religious scene. Miran, late third century. H. c. 29″ (73.8). Photo: National Museum, New Delhi
204Interior view of Cave CXCVI: Buddha, Lohans, Bodhisattvas and painted walls. Tun-huang, eighth century. Photo: Arthaud
205Silk-hanging: Bodhisattva holding a transparent bowl. Tun-huang, 2′ 7½″ x 10″ (80.0 x 25.5). Photo: Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum
206Statue: Lokapala. Painted clay. Cave CXCVI, Tun-huang, eighth century. Photo: Arthaud
207Wall-painting (detail): dancing ladies. Cave CDXXVIII, early sixth century. Tun-huang. Photo: Arthaud
208Statues: the disciples Ananda and Kasyapa. Tun-huang, early seventh century. Photo: Arthaud
209Anberd castle on the promontory at the confluence of the Anberd and Arkhashan rivers. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
210Miniature: The Annunciation. Etchmiadzin Gospel (Maternadaran 2374). Armenian, 989, executed in the Monas­tery of Novavank, Siunik. 11″ x 7⅞″ (28.0 x 19.5). Photo: Thames and Hudson Archives
211Miniature: The Baptism of Christ. Etchmiadzin Gospel (Maternadaran 2374). Armenian, 989, executed in the Monastery of Novavank, Siunik. 11″ x 7⅞″ (28.0 x 20.0). Photo: Thames and Hudson Archives
212Side of carved stone from a church at Gaiana, ninth-tenth century. Photo: Mme Thierry
213Textile (reconstruction): two seated figures in a roundel. Moshchevaja Balka, Armenia, c. third century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
214Column capital: confronted peacocks. Carved wood. Sevan cathedral, Armenia, ninth-tenth century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
215Wall-painting: St Gregory the Illuminator converting Armenia to Christianity, and The Dormition of the Virgin. Church of St Gregory Tigrane-Honentz, Ani. Thirteenth century. Photo: Ara Güler
216City walls, Ani, Armenia. Late tenth century. Photo: Ara Güler
217View of the entrance of the Palace, Ani, Armenia. Author’s photo
218Cathedral, Ani, Armenia, 989-1001. Photo: Ara Güler
219Church of St Gregory of Abughamrentz, Ani. Mid-ninth century. Photo: Ara Güler
220Relief: King Gagik. West façade of the church of Aghtamar. Lake Van, 915-921. Photo: Josephine Powell
221Column capital (detail): bull’s head. The Sion, Bolinsk. 478/9-493/4. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
222Column capital (detail): lions and deer. South pilaster of altar screen. The Sion, Bolinsk, fifth century. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
223Stone relief: Stephanos I, Patriarch of Kavtli, east side of Djvari church, seventh century. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
224Stone relief: The Kuropolate Ashot. Opiza church, 826. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
226Silver disc: St Mamas on a lion. Georgian. sixth-seventh century. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
227Silver icon (detail): St John. Cover of the Bertsk Gospels. Silver. By Beshken Opizari, 1184-93. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
228Silver plaque: two saints. c. Eighth century. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
229Stone relief: altar screen from Tsebelda, sixth century. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
230Exterior view of Ateni church, tenth century. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
231Column capital: Kutais cathedral. Georgian, early twelfth century. Author’s photo
232East front of the church of St Tzkhoveli, Mskheta, 1029. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
233Atzghuri castle. Georgia. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
234An old house in Moshir at the foot of the Oashta in Swanetia. Author’s photo
235Exterior view of Djvari church from the south-east, seventh century. Author’s photo
235Exterior view of Tzromi church. Seventh century. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
236Sketch for a mosaic: Head of Christ. Tzromi church, seventh century. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
237Wall-painting: Christ between the symbols of the Sun and Moon. Cave church at Dodo, David Garedzha. eighth-ninth century. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
238Wall-painting (detail): Archangel. Cave church of Dodo, David Garedzha, eighth-ninth century. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
239Miniature: St Mark. Dzhruchi Gospel. Georgian, tenth century (H. 1660, fol. 92 v.). Photo: Georgian National Museum, Tiflis
240Miniature: St Mark healing the Blind. Dzhruchi Gospel, tenth century (H. 1660, fol. 93). Photo: Georgian National Museum, Tiflis
241Triptych: The Khakuli Icon. Gold repoussé and filigree, inlaid with Georgian and Byzantine enamels and precious stones. Central panel shows the Virgin. Twelfth and tenth century respectively, 6′ 6″ x 4′ 9″ (2 x 1.47 m). State Museum of Georgia, Tiflis. Photo: Cercle d’art, Paris
242Khukuli Icon (detail): Christ Pantocrater; (circle below) Archangel Gabriel (below left) SS John and Mark; (below centre) St Gregory the Theologian. Georgian enamels, twelfth century. State Museum of Georgia. Tiflis. Photo: Cercle d’art, Paris
243Gelat monastery, founded by King Bagrat III, tenth century. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
244Mosaic (detail): The Virgin. Gelat monastery, 1125-30. Photo: Georgian Academy of Sciences
245Photograph taken at the beginning of this century showing a man from Ossetia wearing armour consisting of leather breast-plates, similar to that worn by the Tadjiks. Author’s photo
246Bronze cauldron, with animals mounted on the handles. Daghestan, thirteenth century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
247Bronze cauldron showing mounted rider, Daghestan. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
248Bronze cauldron (viewed from above): confronted animals. Daghestan. H. 18¾″ (48.0). Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
249Stone relief: horseman. Upper portion of a window from a mosque at Kubachi, eleventh century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
250Stone relief: the hunt. Daghestan, twelfth century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
251Stone relief: horsemen fighting. Kubachi twelfth-thirteenth century. Photo: State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
252Bowl: floral decorations in underglaze colours. Kubachi ware, sixteenth century. H. 4½″ (11.4), diam, 12″ (30.5). Author’s collection. Photo: John Webb
The maps were specially drawn by Mr John Woodcock
Map 1 - Caucasus
Map 2 - Central Asia


Ancient Illustrations & Articles
Index of Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers