Illustrations of Byzantine Costume & Soldiers in the

Joshua Roll


Joshua Sent Two Spies Out from Shittim

Israel Crosses the Jordan.     The Twelve Memorial Stones.

The Israelites are Circumcised at Gilgal.

The Captain of the Army of the Lord.

The Israelites March around Jericho.     The Fall of Jericho

Jericho Mourns.     Joshua Sends Scouts to Ai.

The Scouts Report.     Joshua Sends a Small Force to Attack Ai.

The Israelites are Defeated at Ai.     Joshua and the Elders Prostrate before the Lord.

The Lord Chooses Achan as the Sinner.     Achan is Stoned.

The Lord Tells Joshua to Attack Ai.     Israel Marches on Ai.     The Destruction of Ai.

Joshua Condemning the King of Ai.       Joshua Giving Thanks before the Altar on Mount Ebal.

Gibeonite Ruse.     Gibeonites Ask For Help Against the Amorites.     Defeat of the Amorites.

Israel Pursues the Amorites as the Sun Stands Still.     Joshua is Told the Five Kings are in a Cave.

The Israelite Commanders Place their Feet on the Necks of the Five Amorite Kings.

The Amorite Kings are Slain and Hung on Trees.

Other Illustrations
Fall of Jericho
Jericho Mourns & Joshua Sends Spies to Ai
Attack on Ai
The Israelites are Defeated at Ai.
The Defeat of the Men of Ai
Joshua Condemning the King of Ai & Joshua Giving Thanks before the Altar on Mount Ebal
The Embassy of the Gibeonites & The Battle against the Amorites
Israel Pursues the Amorites as the Sun Stands Still.
Josua-Rolle, Codex Vaticanus Pal. Graec. 431. Byzantine, early 10th century. Biblioteca Apostolica, Vatican.

The Joshua Roll is one of the magnificent surviving manuscripts of the Imperial Court School of Byzantium and represents the so-called Macedonian Renaissance. Its cycle of illustrations resemble a frieze, executed in grisaille painting. It is now kept in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana in Rome. Both drawings and paintings contained in the book are the work of different hands, and the coloring was probably added at a later stage. The text is a mixture of Greek majuscule and minuscule forms, containing extracts from relevant Bible scenes. Nothing is really known about the origin of the roll, but the codex was likely intended to glorify the military success of the Byzantine people in the Holy Land as they reasserted themselves against the Arabs. The Greek Bible texts included correspond to the Septuagint.



A 9th-10th century Byzantine Officer from Armies of the Dark Ages 600-1066 by Ian Heath, based on the Joshua Roll.
Scenes from the Book of Joshua from a Byzantine Casket, 10th Century, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
See also other Illustrations of Byzantine Costume & Soldiers
10th Century Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers




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