Armies of the Wars in India
By Paul D. Stevenson
The British Army
Miniature Wargames No 8
How did the British get involved in India in the first place? To answer this question we must go as far back as the early 17th century when small English trading posts were established first at Madras in 1615, Bombay in 1661 and Calcutta in 1690. These three bases were to become the centre of British power in India and of the subsequent colonial growth which mushroomed from small territorial gains into the building of an empire.
These three trading posts became known as residencies for the governors of the East India Company. The East India Company, later known as 'John Company' was a purely commercial and non military organisation which did employ local natives and Portuguese half-castes to guard its warehouses and communication routes from the many bands of robbers that plagued the country-side. The British government realised the importance of trade with India and despatched four companies of regular infantry to serve with the East India Company in 1662. In 1668 the regulars were transferred from the King's Army to become the basis of the EIC's small private army.
During the period under consideration three types of soldier can be distinguished, ie, regular King's troops, EIC Europeans and EIC native troops.
The British government was quick to recognise the need of the East India Company for regular troops when hostilities opened with the French in 1746, resulting in the disgraceful and drunken performance of the British garrison at Madras. Following the capture of Madras by the French, a fleet of 30 ships with 3,000 regulars was despatched by the British government to capture the main French base at Pondicherry. The regulars were a battalion of marines, a battalion of sailors, two battalions of independent companies of infantry and 148 artillerymen. Other troops participating in the siege were the Madras Europeans (753), 2,000 semi-trained sepoys and 1,500 native allied cavalry, a total of 7,599 men. The siege lasted three months and was lifted when the rainy season began (an important factor in wargames campaigns). Madras was returned to Britain in exchange for Cape Breton in North America under the terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
The first regular battalion proper to arrive in India was the 39th Foot who have the honour 'Primus in India' and the battle honour 'Plassey'. The 39th landed at Madras in 1754 and when it left for England n 1757 many of its members transferred to the EIC's Madras European regiment. The Madras regiment was raised in 1702 and later became the 102nd Foot (King's). Other EIC European regiments were the Bengal Regiment raised in 1756 which became the 101st Foot (King's) and served with Abercrombie against the Rohillas (an Afghan tribe) and with Lake in 1803 to 1805. The Bombay Regiment which later became the 103rd Foot served with Stringer Lawrence at Trichinopoly and with Clive at Plassey.
The second regiment of regulars to arrive in India was Draper's battalion, the 79th Foot in 1758. Coote's battalion, the 84th Foot, arrived in India during the following year and it was these two units along with the Madras Regiment that played the leading role in Sir Eyre Coote's victory over the French at Wandewash in 1760 - a significant battle in that it spelled the end of French domination in India.
Because of the very different climate in India, many newly arrived troops from Britain fell victim to disease. When the 72nd Highlanders arrived at Madras in 1781 only 50 of the original 500 men were fit for duty. Along with the 36th Foot they distinguished themselves at Bangalore in 1791. Quite a few Highland regiments saw service in India - the 73rd campaigned in the Mysore Wars under Colonel Macleod and had 600 men present at Mangalore in 1783; the 74th and 75th regiments were raised specially for service in India and were recruited at the expense of the EIC in 1787. They saw action in the 2nd Mysore War and the 74th particularly distinguished itself at Assaye in 1803 under Wellesley. Similarly the 76th and 77th Regiments were also raised at the expense of the EIC in 1787, but in England. Wellesley (later Wellington) was a subaltern in the 76th which served in India from 1787 to 1807 and adopted a badge depicting an elephant. Other regiments which saw service in India during this time were the 19th, 22nd, 24th, 33rd, 36th, 52nd, 65th, 71st, 72nd, 86th, 89th, 90th, 94th, 98th and 100th Foot.
Uniforms worn in India differed little from those worn by troops on service in Europe apart from items such as the havelock (neck cloth) or tropical helmets of the type worn by the 74th Foot (perhaps a forerunner of the later pith helmet). Despite the famous painting of the 74th charging the Mahrattas at Assaye, it is not thought likely that this unit wore the kilt (or any other Highland regiment for that matter).
Each unit had its own regimental facing colours which were in some cases changed, as time passed. Regimental facing colours 1815: yellow - 75th, 77th, 84th, 100th, Bengal and Bombay Europeans; buff - 52nd, 71st, 90th, 22nd; blue - 65th, 86th; black - 89th; red - 76th; green - 19th, 33rd, 39th, 94th, 36th (Gosling green). Light blue facings were worn by the Madras battalion, though it is likely that they were dark blue in 1750, as were all Madras infantry facings post-1769.
The EIC troops wore exactly the same kind of uniform as that worn by the regulars of the time and were organised as the regulars. In theory a battalion consisted of eight companies of 100 men plus a grenadier company also of 100 men. A light company was added after 1765. The usual practice was to detach light and grenadier companies for their specialist functions when in action. In practice company strengths could be 40 to 70 men. When drawn up for battle the battalion would be divided into four 'grand divisions' of three platoons each. Shooting was carried out by staggered section volleys with the men formed in three, later two, deep line. British infantry fire was the best in Europe and it did not take long to realise that native troops could not stand before the deadly volleys. The French too were often broken by the British musketry but frequently got to close quarters despite this, as at Bahur in 1752 and Wandewash in 1760.
King's regiments were always considered superior to those of the Company and their officers always assumed a position of command when an officer of the Company's forces was of an equivalent rank. Because of the nature of the army, EIC officers did not often rise above the rank of major and career soldiers usually remained in the regular service because of this. On the plus side, EIC officers enjoyed a comparatively affluent lifestyle. A certain amount of resentment among regular King's army officers was caused when in 1764 the Company appointed colonels and lieutenant-colonels (instead of the normal majors) to command their European regiments.
For a long time the natives serving with the EIC were little more than a loosely organised rabble. Their conduct at Madras in 1746 bears this out, though it must be said that they were armed only with matchlocks and swords and shields. As late as 1747 the native soldiers were still regarded as the Company's peons. Out of 3,000 natives then currently in service, only 900 had muskets.
Some effort was made to improve the quality of the Company's natives by the famous Robert Clive. The training and discipline of the British 'sepoys' as they came to be known, finally paid off at Arcot when those natives trained by Clive successfully resisted a greatly superior force of Indians led by Chanda Sahib during the Second Carnatic War. The same sepoys furthered their reputation once again under Clive's leadership at Plassey. Up to this time it would appear that the 'sepoys' wore a 'uniform' of white native smock, trousers and turban with a red sash around the waist. After Plassey Clive formed these veterans into a permanent battalion, clothing them in cut-down British tunics and calling them 'Lal Paltan' or 'Red Battalion'. The unit became known as the 1st Bengal Native Infantry and were originally commanded by Ranfurly Knox. It is interesting to note that none of its members came from Bengal but were men from the north who were used to coming forward for military service - adventurers from the Pathans, Rohillas, Jats, Rajputs and Brahmans. In fact the red uniforms worn by this battalion were soon adopted by all sepoys. At the Battle of Condore the French Europeans mistakenly attacked a sepoy unit, Captain Forde having ordered the Company flags, which were only carried by sepoys, to be lowered to create this false impression. The Bengal and Madras Europeans hidden in the tall maize in which the fight took place, were able to surprise and defeat the French.
In the same year (ie, 1758) Clive's superior, Colonel Stringer Lawrence, organised the Madras Europeans into two battalions. He also organised the separate companies of Madras sepoys into permanent battalions - their role was rapidly changing! Seven such battalions were authorised. The first five battalions had red jackets, the 6th wore yellow and the 7th green jackets. The latter both had red facings, with blue for the 1st, yellow for the 2nd, green for the 3rd, black for the 4th and red for the 5th. Each company of sepoys carried company flags to match their facings colour. The 6th had red and yellow diagonal stripes and the 7th had red and green diagonal stripes. The grenadier companies' flags bore the Union device in the corner nearest the staff and each subedar or company commander had his own device in the centre field.
Sepoy battalions had eight centre companies and one, later two, grenadier companies each of which took its place on a flank of the battalion. Each company consisted of three officers, 16 NCOs, three musicians, one accountant, two colour bearers and 84 privates. Sepoy officers were closely supervised by commissioned European officers.
The sepoy battalions in 1812 had the following facing colours: Madras - 2nd, 9th, 12th, 20th, green; 3rd, 24th, 25th, white; 4th, orange; 5th, 14th, black; 6th, 11th, 19th, buff. 1st European - 7th, light blue; 18th, dark blue; 8th, 17th, 21st, yellow; 13th, 16th, 22nd, light yellow; 3rd, 10th, red; the 1st, 2nd, 5th, 10th, 11th, 17th, 20-25th had yellow metal buttons, the rest had white. Bengal - all 28 regiments had yellow facings and white metal buttons. Bombay - 1st European, yellow; 1st NI, orange; 2nd, 28th, dark blue; 3rd, black; 4th, white; 5th, 7th, green; 6th, buff; 9th, light yellow. White metal buttons for all. All troops wore a red coat with white lace loops. Native infantry throughout the period wore white shorts with blue vandyked edging. A variety of weird and wonderful headgear was worn during the period. At first a blue turban of a length of cloth was worn around the head but this appeared to be an untidy article to the fastidious military minds of the period and a new type of headwear was introduced consisting of blue cloth stretched over a wicker frame bearing a strip of tape in the unit's facing colour running diagonally across. The usual shape which became standard towards 1800 was of an inverted bell, although bowl and dish shaped designs were also common. The grenadiers wore an especially ridiculous headdress consisting of the usual bell shaped turban with a small version of the grenadier bearskin cap placed on top. Other types of turban were pointed and cylindrical and were adopted in the late 18th century. Officers tended to wear a taller turban than their men.
At first the only cavalry available to the British in India was to recruit local native horse on the sillahdar principle of paying a higher wage but allowing the cavalrymen to provide his own mount, equipment and forage. This was an easier system to operate than raising regular cavalry. Some of these units became permanent formations and had a semi-regular composition and command structure. One such unit which gave admirable service to the British in India was Skinner's Horse which was raised by the Scottish half-caste James Skinner in 1803 from men who had served with Perron's cavalry in the service of the Mahratta chief, Scindia.
Another source of cavalry was that supplied by an allied Indian prince but not only were they useful they could be unreliable and even treacherous. In 1753 the French Governor M. Dupleix managed to persuade the then allied Mysorean and Mahratta troops to come over to the French, which was a loss of 11,000 horse and 15,000 foot troops to the British.
A more reliable cavalry was to mount infantrymen who showed some equestrian talents and combine them into troops along with European adventurers who sought action on horseback. Sir Eyre Coote was well served by such a man at Wandewash in 1760, a Swiss called de Vasserot commanded 80 cavalry of this sort. In 1769 the European troop was increased to 100 men and a second troop of foreigners (Germans, Swiss and French) was added. The European troop was short lived being disbanded in 1779, mainly because it was an inexpensive commodity.
In 1769 a native regular cavalry regiment of 500 men in four troops was raised by the Company, followed in 1771 by two more, all in Bombay. In 1796 the first three regiments of Bengal native cavalry were raised each of 24 officers and 400 men. The weapons, equipment and mounts were provided by the units which were funded by the Company. Also in the same year Madras raised four native cavalry regiments each with six troops. The native cavalry preferred the sharper 'tulwar' to the cumbersome dragoon sabre and additionally carried a shortened jezzail or carbine.
Regular British cavalry were a rare commodity in India during this period mainly because of difficulties of transportation. The 8th, 19th and 29th Light Dragoons served in India during the latter part of the era. The 19th was the first unit to arrive and served under Wellesley at Assaye and Argaum. The 29th also served in the Mahratta Wars under General Lake. Although 'light' by European standards the British Light Dragoons rode larger and more powerful horses than the Indian cavalry. The troopers themselves were also generally stronger and larger than the Indian cavalry.
The British cavalry wore blue tunics laced white with collar, cuffs, shoulder straps and turnbacks in regimental facing colours; white, tight breeches and knee length boots; the Tarleton pattern helmet was worn. Facing colours were red for the 8th, very light yellow for the 19th and pale buff for the 29th. The Native cavalry wore a very similar uniform except that the jacket was red and included less lace; the helmet was substituted for a sort of lobster pot shaped turban of blue cloth stretched over a cane frame framework. In 1813 blue jackets were worn. Madras cavalry regimental facings were white for the 1st; 2nd, dark green; 3rd, buff; 4th, deep yellow; 5th, black; 6th, light blue-grey; 7th, yellow; 8th, pale yellow.
British artillery was lightweight and consisted mainly of 3 and 6pdr 'galloper' or 6 and 12pdr battalion or battery guns. Siege guns were used in limited numbers but often with great effect by commanders like Lawrence and Clive at Trichinopoly, Coelong and Chingleput where the guns were ran up close to the fortifications and breaches made. There were many sieges during the period and artillery was usually well represented both during these and on the battlefield, something to the order of two guns per battalion.
In fact it was customary to attach two light guns to each battalion and when native and British regular cavalry were used, two galloper guns were attached to each cavalry regiment despite the protests of the British troopers that they hindered mobility. The British gunners, both native as well as European, could out-gun any Indian artillery with their accuracy and rate of fire. At Buxar the huge guns of Suja's Moghul army proved so ineffective that over one hundred of them were not sufficient to halt the advance of Munro's 6,000 infantry.
Artillery uniforms in India were once again similar to those worn in the British army - blue coats with red facings; Europeans dressed as the regulars and natives wore similar coats or jackets but wore the same kind of shorts and headgear as their sepoys.
India saw many talented commanders both from the regular army and the EIC forces. Some of these had no military back-ground at all. Robert Clive, who is perhaps the most famous of the commanders in India at this time, was such a man and also a complex personality. His suicide is well known. The Duke of Wellington who gained worldwide fame during his later military career is even more well known. Napoleon's scathing remark as to Wellington being no more than a 'sepoy general' was irrefutably disproved on the field of Waterloo following a brilliant record of victories in the Peninsular. Yet it was as a sepoy general that Wellington, or, as he then was, Sir Arthur Wellesley, gained much of his experience of command. Other luminaries were Clive's one time superior Stringer Lawrence, a man who 'discovered' the talents of his young lieutenant, Eyre Coote, has been already mentioned; Major Thomas Adams for his relentless pursuit and defeat of Mir Kasim in the Bengal War; Major Hector Munro for his defeat of the ambitious Nawab of Oudh, Suja-ud-Daula; Colonel Joseph Smith who outmanoeuvred and defeated the aggressive Haider Ali at Trincomalee and Lord Cornwallis the Governor General of India (of Yorktown fame). All these commanders pursued a policy of attack when faced with an Indian army in the field and siege by storm when confronted with a fortified position.
Offensive tactics were always the most effective against Indian armies despite their frequent superiority of cavalry. The smaller British guns had to be brought very close to the larger enemy guns where their rate of fire more than compensated for their small calibre. It was found time and again that both irregular and regular Indian infantry could not stand against the European infantry who were capable of showing greater determination in the assault and more stubbornness in defence than the average sepoy. The EIC sepoys were well trained and whilst not as good as the French Europeans, they did gain sufficient confidence to match them. Often the British were forced to go into square against attacks from native horse but this in itself was often a mobile formation and frequently was composed of several units positioned in such a manner as to go into square when the occasion demanded. Coupled with the steadiness of the infantry, and the prudent use of his limited numbers of reliable cavalry, the British commander nearly always won his battle through generalship alone.
Infantry: Madras Sepoy & European c. 1760
Private: 74th Foot in c.1795 and Grenadier: 39th Foot c.1755
Skinner's horse, 1803.
NCO of Grenadiers, Bombay Native Infantry, 1780.
1st Madras Light Cavalry, Indian officer, 1801.
Sir Eyre Coote, 1780.
Madras Sepoy c.1790
For Wargamers: Suggested Army List. Wargames Research Group 1685-1845 Rules.
British Commander. On horse @ 100 points, or on elephant @ 110 points.
Sub-Commander. On horse @ 50 points. 1 per brigade of 3 or 4 battalions.
British EIC or King's Battalion. 8-16 veteran line infantry @ 5 points; 1 to 3 units.
Sepoy Battalion. 12-18 trained line infantry @ 4 points; 2 to 12 units.
Battalion Artillery. Light gun @ 20 or medium gun @ 25 points, 3 gunners @ 5 points and 2 or 3 pairs of bullocks with drivers @4 or 5 points = 39 or 45 points; 1 per battalion.
Artillery Battery. 3 light medium guns @25 points, 12 gunners @ 5 points = 150 points; up to 2. A light medium mortar can be substituted for one gun only. A heavy gun @ 40 points and team of 6 pairs of bullocks @ 8 points may be substituted for one light medium gun only.
Irregular European 'Hussars' (pre-1779). 4 irregular soldier cavalry @ 10 points; up to 1.
Irregular Native Horse. 8 irregular soldier cavalry with jezail @ 10 points; 2 to 5 units.
Regular British Light Dragoons (post-1786). 9 veteran heavy cavalry @ 12 points; up to 1 unit.
Regular Native Horse (post-1769). 12 trained lancers @ 10 points; 1 to 3 units.
Galloper Gun (post-1793). Light gun @ 20 points, 3 horse gunners @ 20 points and 4 horses with drivers @ 4 points = 96 points; up to 1 per cavalry regiment.
Allied Native Prince. On elephant @ 30 points up to 1.
Allied Native Sub-General. On horse @ 20 points; up to 2. (Compulsory if Indians used).
Allied Native Horse. 25 irregular warrior cavalry with bow @ 8 points each; up to 1 unit of irregular levy cavalry with bow @ 6 points each; up to 4 units.
Allied Native Foot. 20 irregular levy armed only for hand to hand combat @ 1 point each or levy armed with bow @ 2 points each, or with matchlock @ 2 points each; up to 4 units.
Armies of the Wars in India: by Paul D. Stevenson
Armies of the Wars in India: Part IV The Mysoreans by Paul D. Stevenson
Information about the Mysore Wars of Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan, illustrations, maps of southern India and portraits.